From OWL Test Cases
An OWL 2 profile (commonly called a fragment or a sublanguage in computational logic) is a trimmed down version of OWL 2 that trades some expressive power for the efficiency of reasoning. The three three profiles of OWL 2 are described in the Profiles document. Each of those achieves efficiency in a different way and is useful in different application scenarios.
Test cases for each profile are listed on the respective page: